When we think of exercise, we always think of some workouts that are very hard to do and it always requires going to the gym, but it’s not always the case. Exercise has many forms with lots of varieties and a huge amount of advantages. There are specialized physical activities for every age group with their specified goals.
A study by Larry Tucker, professor of exercise science at Brigham Young University shows that the physically most active people (jog 30-40 minutes a day for 5 days a week, or workout of the equivalent intensity) had biological aging markers that appeared 9 years (longer telomeres) younger than those who were sedentary.
Regularly exercising anti-ages by 9 years.
The main reason is that physical activities reduce inflammation and harmful chemical imbalances due to oxidative stress .
|Comparison between the Activity of Individuals||Advantages on Reduced Cellular Aging|
|Physically most active vs sedentary||9 years|
|Physically most active vs less active||8.8 years|
|Physically most active vs moderately active||7.1 years|
In another study, showed that workout reduces risks of early aging, mortality rate as well as the risks of cardiovascular diseases and better cognitive health.
How to design your own exercise program?
There are Four Types of Workouts 
|Cardiorespiratory aka aerobic, endurance activities, increase your breathing and heart rate |
keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system healthy and improves your overall fitness
|Weight / Resistance aka strength activities builds muscle and make your muscle stronger |
help you stay independent and carry out everyday activities, such as climbing stairs and carrying groceries
|Balance / Neuromotor lower body strength exercises improve your balance |
helps in preventing falls
|Flexibility stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber |
gives you more freedom of movement for other exercises
Workout such as aerobic, endurance increase the breathing and heart rate.
There are 2 types of cardiorespiratory training – steady-state or endurance and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) t; any exercise that doesn’t fall into HIIT would qualify as endurance activities.
Standards of heart rate by cardiovascular activity [3, 4]:
|Physical Activity||% to Maximum Heart Rate MHR 9 14|
|Endurance training, general aerobic condition||50 – 65% beginner |
60 – 75% intermediate
70 – 85% Experienced
|High-intensity interval training HIIT||> 80% high intensity |
50 – 70% recovery
- Lower risk of all-cause mortality
- Lowers the risk of Cardiovascular disease
- Stroke – reduces risk by 31%
- Hypertension (also linked to renal disease), can reduce by 6.9/4.9 mm Hg
- Cancer – reduces risk by 45%
- Type 2 diabetes (no effective cure; thus preventive measure is important)
- Depression – reduces symptoms by 30% and boosting mood 
- Cognitive function – reduces risk up to 38% 
- Improve bone mineral density and reduction of arthritic symptoms 
- Improve metabolic syndrome score (better than weight training)
- Improve cholesterol profile (increasing HDL, decreasing LDL) 
- Losing weight, fat (body fat mass), and waist circumference (particularly good for visceral fat and liver fat) 
About High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)
HIIT involves repeated bouts of high-intensity effort followed by varied recovery times .
Duration of the high-intensity effort should be between 5 seconds to 8 minutes; during which the effort should range from 80% to greater than 100% of maximum heart rate (MHR), or maximal power output. The recovery can be in form of passive recoveries (doing very little movement) or active recoveries (about 50-70% of the above-described intensity measures) . The optimal work to rest ratio has been identified as 2 to 1 .
|HIIT Program Components||% to Maximum Heart Rate MHR|
|High-Intensity Work: 5 seconds to 8 minutes||80 – 100% MHR|
|Rest Recovery Internal: Work to Rest Ratio 2 to 1||<50% passive recovery |
50 – 70% active recovery
- post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) aka burning of calories after exercise, is higher with HIIT than continuous aerobic training – adding about 6 to 15% more calories expenditure .
- Research by Dr. Thomas Solomon showed the interval walking renders benefits than continuous walking on physical fitness, body composition (including visceral fat), glycemic control for type 2 diabetic patients
- The study based on the physical activity regimen as 5 days/week, 60 mins with 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity, for 4 months 
- Improvement on cardiorespiratory fitness and reversing hemodynamic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension
Training format and frequency
Interval training is very physically demanding and it is important to be fully recovered between sessions.
A powerful program of HIIT to enhance vascular function concluded in a review would be :
4-minute high intensity workout (85-95% of MHR) x 4 times per session + 3-minute active recovery (60-70% of MHR)
3 times per week
A study had shown that people found HIIT less enjoyable than other aerobic exercises – which can make it less sustainable in the long term . Identify and commit to the motivations are thus important to make any lifestyle change sustainable.
> Brisk Walking
> Jumping Rope/ Jumoing Jacks
> Stair Climbing
> Mountain Climbing
Weight, Resistance, or Strength
Activities build muscle and make your muscle stronger.
- Bone health  – high-intensity strength training can significantly increase bone mineral density, protective of bone loss/osteoporosis 
- reverse almost 1% of bone loss per year
- studies showed that 2 sessions per week for 3 years preserve bone mineral density at the spine and hip over a sedentary control group showed bone mineral density losses of 2 to 8%
- Preventive of cardiovascular disease
- Improve low back pain, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and orthopedic injuries
- Increasing muscle mass thus basal metabolic rate (may not have an effect on body weight as an increase in lean body mass)
- muscles burn 3 times more calories than fat while resting confirmed by Claude Bouchard of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center 
- the positive effect on body composition makes it easier to manage one’s weight
- Strengthen back muscles can reduce the risk of vertebral fractures and kyphosis 
- Improve cholesterol profile (increasing HDL, decreasing LDL)
- Increase strength and basal metabolism
- Increase lean body mass
- Increase endurance during aerobic exercise
Training format and frequency
The American Heart Association recommends moderate- to high-intensity muscle-strengthening activity (such as resistance or weights) at least 2 days per week.
2 to 3 days per week; and at least 48 hours between two sessions using the same muscle group  .
But don’t exercise the same muscle group on any 2 days in a row.
The intensity of resistance training is determinant to developing muscular strength. The intensity of weight training is measured by a repetition maximum (RM) – the maximum number of repetitions performed before fatigue prohibits the completion of an additional repetition. A weight load that produces fatigue on the 3rd repetition is termed as a 3-RM which corresponds approximately to 85% of the weight that could be lifted as 1-RM .
|1-6 RM||High||Greatest strength gain||2-3 days||Healthy individuals below 50 years old|
|8-12 RM||Moderate||Strength and power||2-3 days||Healthy individuals below 50 years old|
|10-15 RM||Moderate||Strength||2-3 days||Healthy individuals above 50 years old and cardiac patients|
|10-15 RM||Low||Muscle endurance||2-3 days||All|
Each repetition of exercise should include the following :
- a slow, controlled movement (≈2 seconds up and 4 seconds down),
- one full inspiration and expiration, and
- no breath holding
TYPES OF EXERCISES :
Programs should be designed to train the major muscle groups including a single set of 8 to 10 different exercises:
- Squats,chest press, shoulder press, triceps extension, biceps curl, pull-down / upper back,
- Using your own bodyweight lower-back extension, abdominal crunch/curl-up, quadriceps extension or leg press, leg curls/hamstrings, and calf raise.
- Using a resistance band If stretched and released slowly can improve muscular strength. It is important to feel muscle fatigue, which is an indicator that you are doing them correctly.
Results from studies:
- 25%-100% increase in the muscular strength and endurance for men and women for all ages
- moderate to high intensity, 2-3 days per week, 3-6 months
- High-intensity, low volume, long rest is more advantageous than moderate-intensity, high volume, short rest in stimulating upper body strength and muscle gains
- 3-5 RM x 4 sets + 3 minutes of rest interval vs – 10-12 RM x 4 sets + 1 minute of rest interval, 8 weeks
Note that higher intensity, fewer repetitions with heavier weights, can have adverse effects on the knee (leg extension) and shoulder (rotator cuff) areas.
Balance / Neuromotor
Balance, neuromotor, and sometimes called functional fitness training are exercises that involve balancing skills to prevent falls, especially in older adults. The common exercises include Tai Chi and Yoga.
Benefits and Types of Exercises
- Tai Chi practitioners can have a 47% decrease in falls and 25% hip fracture rate of those who do not
- Tai Chi can be beneficial for retarding bone loss in weight-bearing bones in early postmenopausal women 
- Balancing on a single leg
- Practicing Yoga (styles requiring physical movements and postures) can render the below benefits 
- Muscle strength and endurance
- Flexibility and balance
- Cardiovascular benefits
- Soothing tension and anxiety
Results from studies:
- Balance Training is an effective means to improve static/dynamic state, active, and reactive balance as well as performance in balance test batteries in healthy older adults.
- Improvement was seen in fall-related self-efficacy, reduced fear of failing, and increased walking speed.
Training format and frequency
Balance activities should be incorporated 2 to 3 days per week with 20-30 minutes per day .
Stretch muscles and can help your body stay limber.
- Improve joint range of motion (ROM) and function
- Enhance muscular performance
- Beneficial in fractures recovery
- Prevent and treat musculoskeletal injuries
- Increase tendon flexibility
Training format and frequency
Stretching should be incorporated 2 to 3 days per week between the cardiorespiratory and/or weight workouts  for at least 10 minutes per session .
The components of a stretch session :
Stretch should be performed after warming the muscle (light aerobic activity / hot bath)
10-30 seconds (to the point of tightness or slight discomfort) x 2-4 times = 60 seconds per stretch
2-3 times per week and on days when aerobic or strength training are performed
To avoid muscle injuries; the below format is recommended :
- Ballistic – which makes use of repetitive bouncing movements
- Static – which stretches the muscle to the point of slight muscle discomfort and is held for an extended period.
- Modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques PNF – which uses alternating contractions and stretching of the muscles.
A warm-up is necessary to prepare the body for workout exercise by increasing heart rate and blood flow to working muscles .
Warm-up refers to increase the body temperature through 
- passive warm-up — by some external means
- general warm-up — by nonspecific body movements
- specific warm-up — using similar body parts that will be used in the subsequent, more strenuous activity à this is the best as it offers a rehearsal of the activity.
- Prevent and reduce musculoskeletal injuries
- Optimize flexibility effectiveness and range of motions
Training format and frequency 
It is recommended to incorporate a warm-up prior to performing Cardiorespiratory, Weight and Flexibility training.
- Start with a light cardiovascular exercise such as walking, jogging, or biking for 5-10 minutes to break a sweat
- Once the muscles are warm, perform static stretches, dynamic stretches – the more prepared the body is the less likely it is to get injured
A cool-down of 5-10 minutes of low-intensity cardiovascular activity followed by stretching immediately after the workout will decrease muscle soreness and aid in recovery, both helping to prepare the body for the next workout.
How to design your own workout program?
Incorporate the 4 types of workouts in your weekly routine using a frequency that works towards as well as to sustain your fitness goals – whether to look good, to prevent diseases, to lose weight, to gain more muscles or to be more flexible.
For example, a combination of cardio and weight workout training has the best effect in reducing waist circumference mass while gaining lean muscles .
|decreasing body fat mass||–||Cardiorespiratory training|
|reducing waist circumference||–|
|raising lean muscles|| |
Meanwhile, the most important way to burn fat and to lose weight is directly linked to what you eat. Explore how you can choose your food wisely.
Intermittent fasting has proven to be a sustainable way to weight loss and to protect from age-related diseases.
To find out exactly if you are ‘fit’ – use these measures.
Regardless of your selection of workout training and frequency, it is recommended to add variety to every exercise routine to prevent repetitive, overuse injuries. By switching from running to cycling, or cardiorespiratory to weight-lifting, muscles and joints are used variously to get a break while challenging other body parts at different times.
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