BodyHealth

Surprising Importance of Enzymes For The Body.

A detail review if we should supplement ourselves with enzymes.

Human body produces different chemical reactions and processes. But how are these reactions controlled? Let’s take a closer look at enzymes and how they work.

WHAT ARE ENZYMES?

In 1883 a French Chemist, Anselen Payem, was the one to discover a vital force that conducted biological, chemical reactions occurring in the body, and named them as “Enzymes.” They are primarily proteins that have been folded into complex forms and aid in accelerating metabolism or the chemical reactions occurring within our bodies. They work in ways like breaking a large molecule into smaller ones, synthesizing certain chemicals, and even building up to larger molecules from smaller ones. and changing the molecule shape. They are found in all living organisms.

HOW DO ENZYMES WORK? MODE OF ACTION

But how does a tiny molecule speeds up a chemical reaction.? The answer to this is simple. These molecules lower the activation energy, that is, the energy required to carry out a biological response to begin in the body. When they are not used in the reaction and they can be reused for other chemical reactions, acting as a catalyst. They are highly selective in who they bind to and modify; hence they are specific for each type of reaction.

They can accelerate a reaction millions of times quicker than it would have been in the absence of the enzyme.

The molecules with which an enzyme interacts are referred to as substrates. Substrates interact with an area of the enzymatic particle known as the active site. A substrate is transformed into products when it binds to the active site of the molecule. Whatever the circumstances, once the substrates attach to the active site, the reactions accelerate dramatically – over a millionfold. Once the products have been extracted, the enzyme is ready to bind to a new substrate and restart.

enzymes and thier action
Image courtesy https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4692135/

Two hypotheses exist to account for this interaction. According to the “lock-and-key” theory, an enzyme’s active region is constructed to admit certain substrates and fit into the substrate.

This model has been revised and is now referred to as the induced-fit model. In the induced-fit model, the active site and substrate do not fit together perfectly; instead, both attachment sites change their form in order to connect successfully.

Our bodies generate and produce enzymes on their own. However, they are also found in manufactured food and other products.

FUNCTIONS OF ENZYMES

Enzymes in your body aid in the performance of critical functions. These include muscular development, blood coagulation, healing, illness, respiration, digestion, and reproduction. Toxin elimination and food particle destruction during digestion.  growth, among other biological functions. The chemical reactions that support life and our metabolism – are entirely dependent on their activity.

Digest food

Enzymes play an essential role function in the digestion process. Certain enzymatic particles help the body break down more giant complex molecules into smaller simple molecules that the body can use as fuel. For a fact, they are found in our saliva, pancreas, intestines, and stomach. They are responsible for the breakdown of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Detoxify via the liver  

The liver eliminates toxins from the body. It does this through the employment of a variety of enzymes.

Replicate DNA 

DNA is found in every cell of your body. DNA must be replicated each time a cell divides in order to maintain its integrity. Enzymes aid in DNA replication by unwinding and replicating DNA strands.

Strengthen the immune system 

Enzymes provide nutrients, remove harmful wastes from the body, digest food, purify the blood, deliver hormones by feeding and reinforcing the endocrine system, manage cholesterol levels, and nourish the brain.

Lower cholesterol

Because lipase can break down fat, it reduces cholesterol levels.

Cleanse the colon

Enzymes aid in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids in the colon.

Alcohol Metabolism.

Alcohol is metabolized by a number of different processes or pathways from the liver. ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) and aldehyde dehydrogenase are two enzymes that are involved in the most common of these routes (ALDH). These enzymes aid in the breakdown of the alcohol molecule, allowing it to be excreted from the body more effectively. Read this article for more information.

TYPES OF ENZYMES

The human body contains many enzymes; here are just a few examples: They are classified by the reactions they catalyze:

Amylase aids in the conversion of carbohydrates to sugars. Amylase is a substance present in saliva.
Protease denatures proteins.
Lipase converts lipids (fats and oils) to glycerol and fatty acids in the intestine.
Maltase. This one is also found in saliva. It breaks down the sugar maltose into glucose. It is found in foods like potatoes, pasta, and beer.
Trypsin is found in the small intestine. It breaks down proteins into amino acids.
Lactase. An enzyme called lactase is also found in the small intestine. It breaks lactose, the sugar in milk, into glucose and galactose, which can make glucose and milk.

 

WHAT FACTORS AFFECT ENZYMES?

Enzymes require the proper circumstances to function properly. They can alter form if the conditions are not optimal. They then become incompatible with substrates and cease to function properly. Heat, sickness, or extreme chemical conditions may destroy and alter its structure.  Each enzyme operates optimally at a specific temperature and pH.

Temperature

Enzymes perform optimally at 98.6°F (37°C) body temperature. Their reactions increase with temperatureThey become inactive at high temperatures of more than 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius). That’s why high fever might cause problems. Its functioning can be restored by returning your body temperature to a healthy range.

pH

The lower the pH, the more acidic something is, and the higher the pH, the more basic or alkaline it is. Enzymes are acid- and alkalinity-sensitive. They will not function correctly in an environment that is either excessively acidic or too basic. Their location within the body determines their affinity. For example, enzymes in the intestines function optimally at a pH of 7.5, whereas enzymes in the stomach function optimally at a pH of 2, owing to the stomach’s much higher acidity. In the stomach, for example, an enzyme called pepsin breakdown proteins. Pepsin cannot function effectively if your stomach is deficient in acid.

Diet

Additionally, your nutrition can affect your body’s enzymatic activity. This is because many meals contain digestive enzymes that assist the naturally existing ones in your body in their work.

Amylase, for example, is found in bananas. So even though banana is full of carbs, it also comes with amylase to help you break down the carbs so you can use them for energy later on. Eat a healthy diet in moderation regularly and stay healthy, and your body’s enzymatic activity will be better able to stay on track. Want to know what to eat? Please read our article here for a better understanding.

Inhibitors

Occasionally, enzymes need to be slowed down in order to ensure that the body’s systems operate properly. If an enzyme produces too much of a product, it must be possible to reduce or stop production. A substance known as an inhibitor interferes with an enzymatic capacity to carry out the chemical process. Naturally occurring inhibitors exist. Additionally, they can be developed and produced as pharmaceuticals. Antibiotics are an example. They stop or prevent particular enzymes from assisting in spreading bacterial infections.

Age – Enzymes decrease as we age

While many aspects of our physical health may alter naturally as we age, a poor diet, decreased digestive enzymes, and imbalanced gut flora can wreak havoc on both our digestive and immune systems.

ENZYME AND WEIGHT GAIN

A study led by the National Institutes of Health recently revealed that as animals approach middle age, their levels of an enzyme called DNA-PK increase. While the enzyme is well-known for its role in DNA repair, their research indicates that it also slows metabolism, making fat burning more difficult. To determine if lowering DNA-PK levels could boost metabolism, the researchers studied middle-aged mice. They discovered that a drug-like chemical that inhibited DNA-PK activity significantly reduced weight gain in mice by 40%.

As we get older, our circulation slows down, and organs gradually suffer cumulative damage, impairing their ability to function normally. It can be due to eating a cooked or processed diet depleting our body’s natural enzyme stores. Researchers at the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago discovered that as we age, the enzymes in our saliva, pancreas, and blood become weaker. Additionally, the stomach produces less and less hydrochloric acid, the critical acid that activates the stomach’s digesting enzymes.

Metabolic Disorders

Metabolic diseases are frequently the result of an insufficient amount of a certain enzyme. When an organ becomes diseased, it is unable to function effectively, which results in digestive issues for the patient. Here are two representations:digestive enzymes disorders

  • Coeliac disease is a condition of the small intestine in which the immune system destroys their own tissues as a result of consuming gluten.” This causes damage to the gut (small intestine), making it impossible for you to absorb nutrients. Diarrhea, stomach pain, and bloating are all signs of coeliac disease, which can also cause other symptoms. The tiny structures responsible for nutrient absorption on the gut surface are damaged or flattened. If a person is unable to absorb enough protein from their food, your body will lack the building blocks necessary to produce sufficient digestive enzymes.
  • Hypochlorhydria is another biological disorder that can cause persistently low amounts of digestive enzymes, most notably pepsin. The stomach’s ability to create stomach acid declines with age. A medical process damaging the stomach lining or drugs that reduce stomach acid production can cause this syndrome in younger people.
  • Lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance is a condition in which the body is unable to digest lactose, a sugar found predominantly in milk and dairy products. It is caused by a deficiency of lactase, an enzyme generated by the small intestine that is required for lactose digestion
  • Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI)It is a condition in which your pancreas lacks sufficient digesting enzymes. People suffering from EPI are unable to digest meals or absorb nutrients. EPI can be caused by chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, diabetes, or cystic fibrosis

Diagnosis of Enzyme Insufficiency

Without a blood test, you will not know if you have an enzyme issue. Enzyme and protein blood tests can be used by your healthcare practitioner to detect specific health concerns. A high level of liver enzymes, for example, may indicate the presence of liver disease.

ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION

enzyme supplements

A diet rich in raw fruits and vegetables (which are high in enzymes) combined with the usage of a complete enzyme supplement becomes increasingly vital as we age. Supplementing with digestive enzymes can help us absorb more nutrients from our food as we age. Supplementation also helps leave raw supplies for crucial metabolic enzyme synthesis. The proper dosage depends on your age and weight.

We know that the primary cause of aging is cellular degeneration caused by toxic overload in the body. Enzymes assist the body in defending itself against free radical damage. This harmful process must be halted, as it weakens the entire body and accelerates aging. Many people take over-the-counter digestive enzyme supplements to relieve symptoms such as acid reflux, gas, bloating, and diarrhea, among other things. According to 2015 research, older persons are at a greater risk of acquiring digestive problems that cause their stomach acid levels to decrease. Read our article here for how to anti-age.

Therapeutic enzymes, which have been proved to provide numerous health benefits, function systemically in the body and should thus be taken on an empty stomach. Numerous studies employ combinations of multiple enzymes, and effective dosages vary considerably. It is recommended that you follow the guidelines on the label. Following are the general types of enzymes available;

  • Bromelain. It is extracted from the pulp of pineapples. In addition to aiding in protein digestion, bromelain may help reduce indigestion and inflammation caused by injury or infection. The dosage varies, but it is generally recommended to take bromelain with meals. Pregnant women and toddlers should avoid bromelain. Prescription medicines may be affected by bromelain, so check with your doctor before using them.
  • Papain. Papain comes from papaya. Papain is claimed to aid in protein and fat digestion. Papain consumed as recommended by your physician is typically safe. Too much papain might cause throat damage.
  • Lipase. Lipase comes from pigs, cows, plants, and fungi. Some lipase formulations include amylase, lactase, and protease. Certain health disorders may cause a lipase shortage, considering lipase supplements beneficial. Besides pancreas dysfunction or injury, lipase supplementation may be indicated in celiac disease and Crohn’s disease. Other digestive enzymes can counteract lipase supplementation so like other enzymes supplementation it is advised to see your doctor.
  • Pancreatin. Used when the pancreas cannot produce or release enough digestive enzymes into the intestines. It can be utilized as a supplement or as replacement therapy (e.g., in chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, cancer of the pancreas, after surgery on the pancreas or gut).

It is essential to take enzymes exactly as prescribed. This means that, in the majority of cases, consumers should take digestive enzyme supplements in addition to the food. It is recommended to take therapeutic enzymes 30 minutes prior to or two hours following a meal.

Individuals without chronic health concerns can typically obtain the enzymes they require through a balanced diet. However, if you have specific medical issues, your physician may recommend enzyme supplements. Individuals who have been diagnosed with an enzyme deficiency usually require prescription digestive enzymes. Before using any form of enzyme supplement, consult with your healthcare physician first. These supplements aid the body’s digestion and absorption of nutrients. Dietary enzymes are supplied as supplements in tablet form. If your doctor recommends using these supplements, be sure to obtain FDA-approved ones.

Side Effects of Over Supplementation of Enzymes

There are a few side effects of taking supplemental enzymes. Although enzymes are generally regarded safe, they can occasionally induce allergic responses. Replacing digestive enzymes may result in constipation, abdominal cramps, or nausea. Papain may enhance the blood-thinning capabilities of Coumadin (warfarin) and possibly other blood thinners, such as heparin and others. Pancreatin is well-known for its ability to inhibit folate absorption (a B vitamin). A folate supplement should be taken in conjunction with pancreatin when taking this medication. Then again, they’re commonly used to treat gastrointestinal diseases—and they’re regarded as safe supplements for many people.

Enzymes are proteins that aid in the facilitation of biological reactions in our bodies. They are beneficial in a variety of ways, including breathing and digestion. Having either too little or too much of a specific enzyme might result in health complications. Some individuals with chronic diseases may require the use of enzyme supplements in order to ensure that their bodies function properly. It is only under the guidance of your healthcare physician that enzyme supplements should be taken.

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Aimen

Being a Doctor by profession, Aimen is passionate about helping people get better health in their lives. Aimen enjoys her research on Prime With Time subjects and strives to create better awareness of the problems and changes related to women's health.
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